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Don't comment what your code is doing, comment the Why

Code comments are a common topic of love/hate discussions. It's particularly interesting to see developers shifting opinion while experience grows.

Code Comments are a good idea because we are writing them down to help others. Even to help the future self. But we use a lot of comments that don't help. This explains the Comments bad reputation nowadays.

So, what can we do to improve our comments?

I use a simple rule: Explain the Why, not the What.

I see a lot of Comments that are explaining what the code is doing. That doesn't help. The effort that we put to write a Comment must be invested refactoring the code (this is a good starting point). When we need to describe the What is because the code isn't readable at all.

It's also pretty common to have obvious Comments. All we have seen that "// Get a Customer" comment in a "GetCustomer" method.


Those comments don't bring value. They raise the cognitive load required to read and maintain the code.

So, the idea is to let the code speak for himself. We only write comments, when we need to explain Why we have done something.

It's useful to understand why a piece of code was written in a certain way. Those Why comments can help us out to understand that there's a particular corner case, or the reason for the followed approach, or that, because of a bug (Link the bug from the comment), we need to do that. Those are a few examples, but you get the point.

Our code must be self-describing, but sometimes, we need to explain the Why.

And remember: don't Comment the code that you don't need anymore. Throw it away. In case you need it, it will be at the source control.